The History of Italian and French Gardens

The Italian Renaissance saw a dramatic development in the whole concept of gardens. In the early fifteenth century, as trade started to flourish again, merchants in the hot city of Florence began to build villas or farms on the surrounding vineyard hills where it was cooler. The earliest Renaissance gardens were at first in the formal, enclosed tradition but gradually a view was allowed into the garden through a hole in the wall. As a natural view became more important the enclosures were swept away and the hill side gardens were allowed to stride down their sites through olive groves and vineyards.During the sixteenth century the initiative passed to Rome, where the architect Bramante designed a papal garden within the Vatican. This was forerunner of the High Renaissance style, with a magnificent arrangement of steps and terraces, which became a prototype for everything which became followed. From then on gardens became even more ostentatious in design, with terraces at different levels retained by walls and interconnected by grand staircases. Water again became a major feature, as it was in Islamic gardens. It was pressurized and used spectacularly, progressing down an incline or displayed in an elaborate fountain. While these Renaissance gardens were still places for cool retreat, with shade and water of great importance, they were also showplaces where the site and its vegetation were deliberately manipulated. The Italians were really the first to make decorative use of plants, with hedges, for example, used to link the house and garden structurally.The Renaissance movement originating in Italy spread northwards, together with increased knowledge about plants and their cultivation. In France the small formal gardens within the walls of moated chateaux moved outside, becoming much grander in scale and scope. Unlike the Italian hill side gardens, the French ones were flat and straight, most of them situated in the flat marshy areas to the south and west of Paris. The style was still very geometric, as the original pattern of formal beds within a grid system of paths was simply repeated in order to enlarge the garden.In the seventeenth century Andre le Notre changed French garden planning significantly. With the opening of the chateau garden at Vaux-le-Vicomte in 1661 he established a style which was to influence the whole of Europe for a century. His gardens were still basically formal and geometric in character but they became much more elaborate and interesting with long magnificent vistas, pools or rectangular canals and grand parterres. Parterres were both larger in scale and more intricate in detail than earlier knot gardens. Another distinctive characteristic was the hedge lined avenues which fanned out through the surrounding forest known as pattes d’oie (goose feet). Le Notre was appointed royal gardener to Louis XIV and the garden at Versailles is probably his best known creation. In concept it was a vast outdoor drawing room, intended for the entertainment of a court of thousands.Though most of Le Notre’s gardens were unashamedly for show they were still not places for colour or floral display; canalized and playing water, clipped and trained vegetation, statuary and elaborate parterres provided the visual interest, along with people walking about in them. This stylized layout, originally designed for large chateaux, was adapted to quite manor house. Like the grand Italian gardens, as they became out of scale with the use of the individual, a smaller secret garden had to be created within them for family use.At this stage garden design was fairly international in character and more or less uniform throughout Europe. The Germans imitated the Italian Renaissance style but readily switched to the grand geometric French style when it became dominant. The main historical contribution of Germany has been a numerical one – in the sixteenth century there were more gardens in Germany than any other country in Europe – and a certain exaggeration of the elements in any style they adopted. The French formal style of gardening also flourished in the sandy soil of Holland, on a smaller and less sophisticated scale but with more emphasis on hedges, fantastic topiary and decorative planting. Their box-edged formal beds were filled with tulips in the spring, brought back from the Middle East. The Dutch were responsible, through their trading and through their rise as a colonial power, for the introduction of much imported plant material – from China, America, South Africa and many other countries. They introduced the lilac, the pelargonium and the chrysanthemum into Europe and popularized tulips and many other bulbs.In the same way that English medieval gardens remained pale counterparts of the elegant and colourful enclosures found in Europe, the gardens of English royalty and aristocracy developed on the lines of Italian and French Renaissance layouts during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They were, however, less rigorously formal, since the English climate is more conductive to mixed plating. There was also a developing interest in horticulture and a new emphasis on flowers grown for their appearance rather than for culinary and medicinal use.One of the first gardens in the grand formal style was Hampton Court Palace, later emulated by all Tudor nobility. The flower beds were laid out in a knot garden pattern and other characteristics included mazes, labyrinths, gazebos or pavilions, topiary, sundials, trellis and arbours. Vegetable gardens were usually walled and separate from the main garden. After 1660 the influence of Le Notre made itself felt briefly: grand parterres replaced simple knots and vast lakes and canals replaced gentle fountain, while broad beech-lined avenues stretched out to the horizon. Though the English could not match the Italians or French designers, not the Dutch as growers, the closely-cut lawn was one feature of English gardens which attracted international admiration.The seventeenth century was a time for pioneers on the English gardening scene. The first gardening text books appeared, the interest in horticulture increased and a great search for new plants began. The earliest botanic gardens were opened and there was an increasing use of orangeries and conservatoires to protect tender plants. Men like London and Wise set up the first commercial nurseries and began selling plants throughout the land.

A Levels Online in an ever-changing world!

Many of you often ask us if A Levels online are worth considering in order to gain a recognized qualification or if you have left it too late to study A Levels, as part of your career progression.

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A Levels, known as ‘Advanced Level qualifications’ are normally introduced for students aged 16 and above. The term of the A Level qualification would normally be two years, although learners choosing to study through online learning, can normally fast track and complete this much sooner. UCAS points will be available, which will go towards University applications.

Learners also have the option to complete AS Level only and will still receive UCAS points, depending on grades achieved.

Do I need A Levels for University?

Most universities insist that potential applicants have a good mix of basic Maths and English Level 2, together with Level 3 qualifications or A Levels in order to secure a place with them. When considering applying to University, the first thing we recommend you should do is contact them and ask what the entry requirements are for the specific degree you are considering studying as you cannot leave this to chance. We have had students come to us at the eleventh hour, desperate to study a specific subject in a short space of time because they did not ask this simple question.

Can A Levels go wrong?

In an ideal world, many would complete their A Levels in sixth form at a conventional school or college, then progress to college or university. However, this does not always go according to plan and for one reason or another, you may not have had the opportunity to gain your A Level in a school or college setting.

A classic example is a Covid-19 pandemic, where many students were expected to sit their exams in the normal way and were then told that due to the cancellation of exams, their results would be based on predicted grades. This worked for some learners as they had worked hard on any assessments submitted to their Teacher but for others who hadn’t really made the effort, relying on studying hard for their examinations; it did not bring the desired effect with low grades submitted.

We then had a second year of canceled examinations, again something that no one was prepared for. The results of this, we are still awaiting, but I am sure that there will be learners receiving grades they were not expecting.

There have also been other reasons learners have been unable to achieve their A Level qualification. As an example, we were approached by Jason, who had been keen to study A Level Computer Science at school but during his first year, he had become extremely ill and was not able to complete his second year. This is one of our extremely popular courses as this can lead to various career paths such as Application Analyst, Business analyst, Data analyst, Games developer, etc. We enabled Jason to complete his second year of A Level Computer Science and he then went on to study a degree at university managing to get himself back on track.

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Are there any age restrictions for studying A Levels?

Not everyone is suited to studying with an online learning college though and we have found that learners of all ages enrol with us, as there appears to be no set criteria for applicants. As they say ‘it is never too late to learn and everything changes so fast, we have to keep up to date with it.

Suggested site: Learn Now Distance Learning College

One of the things we have found with learners is that you really need to be self-motivated and able to work autonomously. This is difficult if you feel you can only work in groups with your peers and do not feel you can set yourself a timetable and stick to it, thus avoiding distractions. We have found that using your Lesson Plan helps considerably as this sets out which modules should be completed and when. This can give you a certain amount of structure and ensure that you stay on track throughout your course.

It would seem that there are always options to complete your A Levels, whether online or studying at a school or college. It is a case of you deciding the best options for yourself.

An Anti-Aging Nutrition Supplement Diet With Vitamins, Minerals The Secret Of A New Body

An Anti-aging nutrition supplement diet with vitamins, minerals is the secret of having a more vibrant and healthy body so you can live life to its fullestUsing proper nutrition is an important part of anti-aging and it will also help promote great health and energy as well. Using the right type of anti-aging nutrition in your diet and taking additional nutritional supplements can actually help you take control of the aging that occurs within the body. While there are a variety of different anti aging medications, creams, and vitamins available that say they will help you not to age as quickly, believe it or not your nutritional diet is the most important thing when it comes to you combating the aging process.Eating foods that are high in ant aging anti-oxidants can help you keep the aging process from occurring as quickly and they will provide you with the energy you need as well. One of the main things to get in an anti-aging diet is plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. Things that you may want to add into your diet include oranges, crisp carrots, delicious strawberries, and tasty broccoli. You will find that the most colorful fruits and vegetables are actually the ones that have the most anti-oxidants and vitamins in them as well.If you want to get the proper anti-aging nutrition, it is important that you have at least eight to nine servings of your fruits and vegetables every single day. Most fruits and vegetables actually do not have any fat or cholesterol, and they contain great nutrients, fiber, and only a few calories. Remember to choose the fruits and vegetables that have the deepest and darkest colors. You will find that spinach actually has more nutrients in it than lettuce and a sweet potato is better than a potato. Both the sweet potato and the spinach are actually richer in color. Keeping color in mind can help you pick out the best fruits and vegetables for anti-aging nutrition.Nutritional supplements for Antiaging At times it may not be possible for you to get all the anti-aging nutrients you need by your diet alone, which is where anti-aging nutritional supplements come in. You may need to add one of these supplements to your diet in order to get the nutrients you need. Some of the nutrients and vitamins that would be a good anti-aging nutritional supplements include Vitamin D, niacin, Vitamin K, all the B Vitamins, folic acid, zinc, iron, and even copper. Vitamin C is also important as well, and you will probably want to look for extra anti-aging nutritional supplements that have at least 1000 mg of Vitamin C as well. It is important to note that usually men and women have different needs when it comes to their nutritional needs. Women need to make sure that they get enough calcium in order to ward off osteoporosis and taking about 1000mg of Calcium a day is a good rule of thumb, and in some cases women may even need up to 1500mg a day. Men can greatly benefit from taking anti-aging nutritional supplements that have supplements to help the immune system, such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E, which can help them avoid getting prostrate cancer. When you are taking anti-aging nutritional supplements, drinking plenty of water is extremely important. Water is not only excellent for keeping your body young and healthy, but it helps to hydrate your body and also move the nutrients you are taking throughout your body as well. At least two liters of water should be consumed every single day. Drinking enough water can help keep your skin looking smooth, young, and healthy.Objectives of Anti-Aging NutritionThere are a variety of harmful toxins that are in the body that can cut short your lifespan. Eating foods that have anti-oxidants in them can help you get rid of these harmful toxins so you will live longer. Also when you eat an anti-aging diet you will also be able to enhance your energy and promote mental and physical mobility as well. Another objective of eating an anti-aging nutrition diet is to make sure that your body gets the minerals and nutrients that are needed. These will help make sure that the body is functioning as it should as well. While you need to increase the intake of good nutrients, you will also want to cut some things out of your diet as well, such as saturated fat, trans fats, and some red meats as well.Not only can you prevent much of the aging process by eating an anti-aging nutrition diet, but you can also help to prevent a variety of diseases as well. Eating the right diet can help you make sure that your immune system functions as it should and will also protect other parts of your body as well. Instead of spending a great deal of money on expensive products that claim they will help stop the aging process, why not just start a eating right, using anti-aging nutrition to slow down the aging process. It is much cheaper and a great way to keep your body healthy and happy.