The History of Italian and French Gardens

The Italian Renaissance saw a dramatic development in the whole concept of gardens. In the early fifteenth century, as trade started to flourish again, merchants in the hot city of Florence began to build villas or farms on the surrounding vineyard hills where it was cooler. The earliest Renaissance gardens were at first in the formal, enclosed tradition but gradually a view was allowed into the garden through a hole in the wall. As a natural view became more important the enclosures were swept away and the hill side gardens were allowed to stride down their sites through olive groves and vineyards.During the sixteenth century the initiative passed to Rome, where the architect Bramante designed a papal garden within the Vatican. This was forerunner of the High Renaissance style, with a magnificent arrangement of steps and terraces, which became a prototype for everything which became followed. From then on gardens became even more ostentatious in design, with terraces at different levels retained by walls and interconnected by grand staircases. Water again became a major feature, as it was in Islamic gardens. It was pressurized and used spectacularly, progressing down an incline or displayed in an elaborate fountain. While these Renaissance gardens were still places for cool retreat, with shade and water of great importance, they were also showplaces where the site and its vegetation were deliberately manipulated. The Italians were really the first to make decorative use of plants, with hedges, for example, used to link the house and garden structurally.The Renaissance movement originating in Italy spread northwards, together with increased knowledge about plants and their cultivation. In France the small formal gardens within the walls of moated chateaux moved outside, becoming much grander in scale and scope. Unlike the Italian hill side gardens, the French ones were flat and straight, most of them situated in the flat marshy areas to the south and west of Paris. The style was still very geometric, as the original pattern of formal beds within a grid system of paths was simply repeated in order to enlarge the garden.In the seventeenth century Andre le Notre changed French garden planning significantly. With the opening of the chateau garden at Vaux-le-Vicomte in 1661 he established a style which was to influence the whole of Europe for a century. His gardens were still basically formal and geometric in character but they became much more elaborate and interesting with long magnificent vistas, pools or rectangular canals and grand parterres. Parterres were both larger in scale and more intricate in detail than earlier knot gardens. Another distinctive characteristic was the hedge lined avenues which fanned out through the surrounding forest known as pattes d’oie (goose feet). Le Notre was appointed royal gardener to Louis XIV and the garden at Versailles is probably his best known creation. In concept it was a vast outdoor drawing room, intended for the entertainment of a court of thousands.Though most of Le Notre’s gardens were unashamedly for show they were still not places for colour or floral display; canalized and playing water, clipped and trained vegetation, statuary and elaborate parterres provided the visual interest, along with people walking about in them. This stylized layout, originally designed for large chateaux, was adapted to quite manor house. Like the grand Italian gardens, as they became out of scale with the use of the individual, a smaller secret garden had to be created within them for family use.At this stage garden design was fairly international in character and more or less uniform throughout Europe. The Germans imitated the Italian Renaissance style but readily switched to the grand geometric French style when it became dominant. The main historical contribution of Germany has been a numerical one – in the sixteenth century there were more gardens in Germany than any other country in Europe – and a certain exaggeration of the elements in any style they adopted. The French formal style of gardening also flourished in the sandy soil of Holland, on a smaller and less sophisticated scale but with more emphasis on hedges, fantastic topiary and decorative planting. Their box-edged formal beds were filled with tulips in the spring, brought back from the Middle East. The Dutch were responsible, through their trading and through their rise as a colonial power, for the introduction of much imported plant material – from China, America, South Africa and many other countries. They introduced the lilac, the pelargonium and the chrysanthemum into Europe and popularized tulips and many other bulbs.In the same way that English medieval gardens remained pale counterparts of the elegant and colourful enclosures found in Europe, the gardens of English royalty and aristocracy developed on the lines of Italian and French Renaissance layouts during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. They were, however, less rigorously formal, since the English climate is more conductive to mixed plating. There was also a developing interest in horticulture and a new emphasis on flowers grown for their appearance rather than for culinary and medicinal use.One of the first gardens in the grand formal style was Hampton Court Palace, later emulated by all Tudor nobility. The flower beds were laid out in a knot garden pattern and other characteristics included mazes, labyrinths, gazebos or pavilions, topiary, sundials, trellis and arbours. Vegetable gardens were usually walled and separate from the main garden. After 1660 the influence of Le Notre made itself felt briefly: grand parterres replaced simple knots and vast lakes and canals replaced gentle fountain, while broad beech-lined avenues stretched out to the horizon. Though the English could not match the Italians or French designers, not the Dutch as growers, the closely-cut lawn was one feature of English gardens which attracted international admiration.The seventeenth century was a time for pioneers on the English gardening scene. The first gardening text books appeared, the interest in horticulture increased and a great search for new plants began. The earliest botanic gardens were opened and there was an increasing use of orangeries and conservatoires to protect tender plants. Men like London and Wise set up the first commercial nurseries and began selling plants throughout the land.

10 Ways To Boost Your Credit Score

1. Deleting Errors in 48 HoursThis is the absolute fastest way to correct errors on your credit
report and raise your credit score. However, it can only be done
through a mortgage company or a bank. If you apply for a home
loan and find errors on your credit report, request the loan
officer to conduct a Rapid Rescore. But don’t mistake it for the
credit clinic tactic of multiple dispute letters.The Rapid Rescore strategy requires proper paperwork. You need
proof that the item is incorrect. It must come from the creditor
directly. For example, a letter stating the account is not your
account, a letter stating the account was paid satisfactorily,
a release of lien, a satisfaction of judgment, a bankruptcy
discharge, a letter for deletion of collection account or any
relevant evidence.This is the same documentation a bank or mortgage company would
require for the credit accounts anyways. The difference is, now
you can improve your credit score and receive a lower interest
rate. The results are not guaranteed and will run you about $50
per account.2. Deleting Negative CreditThis is the infamous area where you’ve heard of all the scams.
Credit repair clinics charge “an arm and a leg” and promise a
clean credit report. Sometimes even a new credit profile! People
spending hundreds, or even thousands, of dollars for something
they can do themselves.Removing errors is simple. Deleting negative credit that is
accurate requires advanced methods. But that is not the scope
of this report. So I’ll focus on the deleting the negative
errors.Credit report errors easily disappear by using a simple dispute
letter. If you have the paperwork proving the error as mentioned
above in Rapid Rescore, send copies of that along with the
dispute letter. This will make the credit bureau’s job easier and
you will get faster results.If you don’t have the documentation to prove the error(s), send
the dispute letter anyway. According to federal law, the credit
bureau’s have a “reasonable time” to validate your claim. They
will contact the creditor for verification of your dispute. Then
the account will be reported accurately – or deleted. It has been
generally accepted the “reasonable time” to complete this task is
30 days.If you’re not the do-it-yourself kind of person. Or don’t have
the time. You could hire someone who is very economical.3. PiggyBack Someone’s CreditThis is a fast and great little credit score booster. But it
requires a very trusting relationship. Simply put, someone else
adds you to their credit account. For example, when applying for
a credit card, you may have seen the section to add a card holder.
If your trusting person adds you, their payment history is now
reported on your credit report too. If they have perfect credit,
now you have a perfect account.To make this more effective, use an aged account. Imagine if your
trusted person has a 10 year old credit card account with a
perfect payment history and a balance of only 50% of the credit
limit. Wouldn’t you love to have this on your credit report? The
easy part is your trusted person just calls the credit card
company and requests a form to add a cardholder. Once completed
and activated, their entire account history and future is now
firmly planted on your account. Imagine if you secured 3-5 of
these accounts – especially installment accounts. Your credit
score could sky-rocket!The challenging part? Finding the trusted person. Since you already
have a low credit score and bad credit, how eager will someone be
to make you a cardholder? Even your parents don’t want you to
damage their credit. But, no one says you need to possess the card!
In other words, your trusted person could add you as a card holder
and never give you the card or PIN or any information. Since the
bills and all account information is still mailed to the trusted
person’s address, you won’t know anything about the account. This
scenario could land you many trusted persons. And you still benefit
with a higher credit score.4. Playing Round RobinThis strategy is one of the oldest credit building techniques
around. It used to be accomplished with secured savings accounts.
But now, it’s much easier with secured credit cards. In fact,
I’ve used this method myself.Here’s how it works: Take ,000 (or what you can afford) and get
a secured credit card. Once received, get a cash advance of 70%
of your credit limit. Get a second secured credit card. Once
received, get a cash advance of 70% of your credit limit. Get a
third secured credit card. Once received, get a cash advance of
70% of your credit limit.Open a new checking account with the final cash advance. Use this
account only for making payments on your three new credit cards.
If you make your payments on time every month, your credit score
will increase because you now have three new perfect payment
credit cards. (Initially, your credit score might drop a few
points due to the rapid, multiple accounts being opened. However,
be patient because within 4 months of no new accounts or any
delinquencies of any account, you will see your credit score
increase. Mine increased 60 points in 60 days!!)5. Pay on TimeThis one is quite obvious. But after 12.5 years in the mortgage
business, I discovered it still needs repeating. Your creditors
were gracious enough to loan you money. Now pay your damn bills!
If you don’t, your credit score decreases. EVEN IF ONLY 30 DAYS
LATE!That’s right folks. For some reason people think, “I’m only a
few weeks late. What’s the big deal?” Well, for the loan company,
if you pay late but consistent, they make a lot more money with
late fees and more interest (if a simple interest loan). For you,
your credit score is damaged. If you think long-term and credit
score, I’m certain you would not have a cavalier attitude.6. Pay Down DebtsThis seems like an obvious method, doesn’t it? But it is not as
transparent as you might think. Remember, we’re playing with
high-level statistics and probabilities which evaluates and
forecasts trends in your behavior. Here’s what you do…Never pay off your revolving debt in it’s entirety! Isn’t that a
surprise? Think about it. Your credit score is a reflection of
your ability to manage your credit. Paying off your debt is not
managing your debt. If you have a zero balance, how can you manage
it? You don’t. It no longer exists. And you cannot manage what
does not exist, right? Therefore, in terms of credit score, you
have demonstrated your ability to swiftly pay off accounts to
avoid managing them. Thus, slightly decreasing your credit score.One exception, of course, is if you’re over extended to begin
with. Pay off what’s necessary to make your credit profile look
great. Then manage the remaining credit.7. Don’t Close AccountsEven if you pay off revolving debts, do not close the account.
The longer an account is open with no negative reports, the
better it reflects in your overall credit score. This is due to
the weighted-average in the credit score formula. Many credit
experts suggest a balance of 30% of your credit limit. That’s
ideal. But you can go as high as 70% and still maintain a
healthy credit score.8. No New CreditYou must be vigilant in your credit behavior if you want the best
credit score. Therefore, do not get any new credit unless it is
absolutely necessary. Each time you apply for credit, an inquiry
is added to your report. This usually drops your credit score
slightly. When you have fresh credit, there is no track record
how you will manage (or pay) this account. Therefore, it’s a
higher risk which results in a minor drop in your credit score.
Remember, your credit score is about risk assessment.Here’s what you do: obtain credit for your housing, transportation,
college or continued education and 3-5 credit cards. That’s really
all you need for personal credit. If you want more credit, request
a credit limit increase on your current cards rather than apply
for new ones.9. Maintain A Mix of Credit TypesIf you show you can handle different types of credit at the same
time, you are rewarded with a great credit score. In other words,
get installment loans like vehicle, personal loan or mortgage.
Get revolving credit like credit cards: Visa, Mastercard, Sears,
Sunoco Gas, Costco. By mixing it up, you demonstrate you can
manage your credit because you will have short term and long term
credit with a fixed payment. As well as a “variable” monthly
payment on your credit cards.Keep these accounts open with a balance of 70% or less and paid
on time and you will witness your credit score climb to great
heights.10. Don’t File Bankruptcy or ForeclosureHere’s the most obvious advice: Don’t file for bankruptcy or
foreclosure. These stay on your credit report for 10 years and
always decrease your credit score. The older the bankruptcy or
foreclosure account becomes, coupled with re-built credit
history, the less of an impact they play on your credit score.Contrary to popular beliefs, you can legally delete a bankruptcy
and foreclosure. It’s not easy. But it’s possible. See the
advanced methods for that solution.To quickly rebuild your credit history after a bankruptcy or
foreclosure, use the Round Robin strategy above and get secured
credit cards. Now you can even get a car loan or mortgage right
after bankruptcy.© 2004 David Czach.——– Editor’s Note ———-Dave Czach has 12 years experience in the mortgage business and
a Bachelor’s Degree in Real Estate. He can be reached at
http://myLoanHero.com/go.cgi/daveczach.This article may be reprinted without compensation provided
there are no changes whatsoever to the article, the copyright
notice and the complete Editor’s Note. Any reprinting or
duplication without these conditions is copyright infringement.——– Editor’s Note ———-

Opt For Preventive Care To Reduce The Cost of Healthcare

People often do not prioritize their health and visit the hospital or their doctors while detecting some disease-causing symptoms in their bodies. However, preventive care is the best possible way everyone can undertake and cease the risk factors before the symptoms become dangerous and life-threatening. The following article will focus completely on preventive health care and how it helps reduce further costs involved with healthcare.

Suggested article: Preventive Dental Care In California

What is Preventive Care?

Preventive health care or prophylaxis involves the measures that people consider for preventing any diseases. The form of healthcare includes utilizing medical services or precautions that fight against the potential health crisis. It is the most important step that people can adopt in better management of their health.

Several factors such as genetic predisposition, lifestyle, environmental factors, and disease agents affect people’s health. Hence, everyone must undergo periodic health check-ups and screening tests from the doctors.

People opt for preventive health care for maintaining better health, and eliminating the disease becomes serious. Preventive care in conjunction with medicines will save a patient from health breakdown and save money from future expenses, especially if the patient is suffering from a chronic disease.

What are the Preventative Care Services?

Here are some of the examples of preventive health care services, along with their frequencies. ·

Annual Check-up (1 per calendar year): During the annual check-up, the doctor or Primary Care Provider (PCP) checks all areas of a person’s health, including physical and psychological. Examining the patients in detail helps in detecting any health care concerns in the early stages.

· Flu Shot (1 per year): Most health plans include flu shots and protect the patients from all strains of flu viruses.

· Mammogram (1 calendar year, after the patient attains the age of 40 years): Patients over the age of 40 must undergo routine x-rays of breast tissues and check for signs of cancer and other abnormalities. Some health plans might cover the costs of 3D imaging. ·

Colonoscopy (usually once in every decade after the age of 50) for detecting colon cancer.

· Vaccinations, including boosters for such as measles, rubella, polio, etc. administered during childhood.

Preventive health care helps keep people productive and active, enabling them to earn well during their senior years. Studies show that approximately 35% of people have to consider early retirement, even before they are financially ready. Opting for affordable, preventive care helps in reducing the numbers.

Why Should Patients Opt for Preventive Care?

Access to preventive health care helped reduce healthcare costs among Americans, as the physicians can prevent or treat the disease before the patient needs emergency room (ER) care. Almost one-third of costs in America include hospital care, which is undoubtedly very expensive. In 2010, 21.4% of adults paid at least a visit to the emergency room, which reduced to 18.6% in 2017. Adults not having affordable access to preventive care are more likely to pay a couple of visits to the emergency room.

Statistics show that 7% of the adults in the age group of 18-64 paid visits to the ER in 2014, as they had no other option, regardless of their health insurance status. About 77% of Americans went to the emergency rooms due to complications in their health, including those whose doctors advised them for emergency room care. Approximately 15.4% of uninsured adults in 2014 are more likely to use the emergency room, as they lacked other providers.

Undoubtedly, the cost of ER care for uninsured patients was extremely high. Hospitals provide care, even if the patient fails to provide fees for their services. As hospitals must recover the cost, they shift to Medicaid and health insurance premiums, which increases the healthcare cost for everyone.

Impact of Preventive Care Cost on Health Care Costs

Chronic diseases are the major leading cause of death among people, either preventable or manageable with regular visits to health care. These include:

· Heart diseases

· Cancer

· Stroke and

· Chronic lower respiratory diseases

Poor nutrition and obesity are the leading cause of heart disease and stroke. Genetics and smoking lead to lung cancer, which is the most common type of cancer. Obesity also risks several other forms of cancer.

Treating these chronic diseases is expensive, even before they reach emergency room status. Approximately 90% of the 3.5 trillion USD includes health care expenditures for people suffering psychological problems and chronic diseases. Patients who never went for preventative care or did not have any prescription coverage failed to afford the treatments, screenings, regular check-ups, and medications that would manage the underlying conditions of the disease. Instead, they head up to the emergency rooms with cases of strokes, heart attacks, and other complications.

However, with regular access to affordable, preventive care, the patients were more likely to discover and manage their chronic conditions. Doing so lowers the chances of visiting the emergency rooms and investing more into expensive treatments for those diseases, which passed regular management. With the decrease in the expenditure for treatments, the overall healthcare cost also decreases for everyone, as the hospitals no longer try to cover the treatment cost of the uninsured patients.

When and What Preventive Health Care is the Most Suitable?

A patient’s primary health care provider will help him or her coordinate the most suitable shots and tests. While analyzing the beneficial shots, the health care provider will consider certain aspects such as family history, age, sex, current health status, and several other factors.

Conclusion

Preventive health care often covers 100% of health plans and offers the patients several benefits both in cost and health. However, if the patient experiences doubts or are in dilemmas about the things covered and tests conducted, he or she must communicate with the physician at the earliest.

Everyone knows, “health is wealth.” If a patient is healthy, he or she will perform the best. However, it is also important to adopt a healthy lifestyle, reducing the risk factors and saving the patients from spending money on medicines.